In Kharif season 2019-20, FASAL SALAH team carry out a study of crops grown in Amritsar district of Punjab. Paddy is the major crop of Amritsar district. Idea was to look at the crop on ground as well as from satellite to see if size the crop and yields could be determined.
FASAL SALAH App, Our Crop monitoring technology is unique using bottoms up approach with crop monitoring at field level and correlating ground realities with real-time crop vegetation index monitored via spectral analysis of high-resolution satellite images for different fields and crops. This enables to track positive and negative dynamics of crop development much more realistically.
This way it is more realistic way of crop yield estimation before actual harvest. Our technology has been field tested and awarded by Govt. of India (Winner of Great Agriculture Challenge 2019).
Satellite Image Processing and Vegetation Index-
The Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Vegetation Indices MOD13Q1 Version 6 (16-day composite) NDVI image product with spatial resolution of 250m, was used in this work. The satellite image has been pre-processed to rectify the geometrical errors.
The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) with 9 km resolution data used in this assessment, The SMAP spacecraft carries two instruments, a radar (active) and a radiometer (passive), that together make global measurements of land surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. It is useful for monitoring and predicting natural hazards such as floods and droughts, understanding the linkages between Earth’s water, energy and carbon cycles, and reducing uncertainties in predicting weather and climate.
During the rabi season The recently launched Sentinel-1 SAR satellite offers a powerful tool for agricultural area classification and monitoring under various weather conditions. The Sentinel-1 satellites provide an exceptional combination of high spatial and high temporal resolutions for dual polarization synthetic aperture radar data (6 days of temporal resolution and a 10 m _ 10 m pixel spacing). The availability of a dense time series enables the derivation and analysis of temporally backscattered signals. Since rice cultivation in Camargue takes place between June and October of each year, we focus our analysis of SAR data only on this period. For this reason, three S1 images obtained from the Sentinel-1A (S1A) and Sentinel-1B (S1B) satellite constellation operating at the C-band (frequency = 5.406 GHz, wavelength ~ 6 cm) were downloaded for the period between 26 June, 01 August and 25 August 2020 and then make the composite of all images for estimation of paddy crop during the kharif season 2019-20.
Our main task is to conveniently combine all of the information about your fields in one place, to identify and draw the attention of farmers to problem areas. To achieve this, we collect data from different sources - satellite images, weather data, soil types, vegetation maps, among others - and supplement it with our own developments. After having analyzed the data obtained, the system notifies the user of possible risks and changes provides the ability to cluster fields and treat them accordingly, as well as predict yields. In the long run, the system allows for optimal resource utilization and effective decision-making.
- The district lies at the 31° 37’ 50. 20” N and 74° 52’ 17. 59’ E covering an area of 139 km2, according to the 2011 census Indore district has a population of 1.2 million.
- Amritsar falls under Trans Gangetic Plain Region (VI) with an annual rainfall of 712.7 mm with the South West Monsoon, North East Monsoon, Winter and Summer supply.
- The net sown area is 218 thousand hectares and gross cropped area is 422 thousand hectares with cropping intensity of 194%.
· The district has a wide variety of crops grown where major Rabi crops in the region is Paddy.
- BKC’s FASAL SALAH App is in service of Indore farmers. A unique and AI based advanced technology where the farmers sends the geo-tagged crop pictures of wheat for better advice. Farmers get advisories based on variety sown, date of sowing and weather forecast of their village. This App uses artificial intelligence for image processing of farmers sent pictures and crop modelling analytics, which BKC has established for calculation of area, yield and health of the crop well before the harvest.
- Temperature condition in the month of June and July is optimal, whereas from the first week of September its continuously down.
- Ups and down rainfall perceived from the month of June to July but from the second fortnight of July, there is no rainfall witnessed during the kharif season 2020.
NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI):
- NDVI values of the current year are showing better that of the previous year in all over the district during the Kharif season 2019-20.
- NDVI values are relatively higher in the current year when compared to the previous year except for Baba Bakala tehsil.
- NDVI depicts comparatively better crop condition with respect to the previous year, all through the district.
- NDVI value depicts lagging behind in current year compared with previous year during the kharif season 2019-20.
- All over the district displays lower moisture content with respect to the previous year during the month of June 2020.
- Soil moisture demonstrates low moisture content in all over the district when compared to the previous year in the month of July 2020.
- Deficit soil moisture content is depicted in the month of August in all over the district, in comparison to the year 2019.
• Soil moisture portrays moderate moisture content in the month of September in comparison to the previous year in Amritsar district.
• Soil moisture in the October month displays a picture of healthy moisture content throughout the district as compared to that of the previous year.
Acreage estimates Amritsar (Punjab):
- Paddy is the major crop of Amritsar district during the Kharif season 2019-20 with crop area of 185321 hectares. Area of Paddy crop in current year showing slightly higher from 180000 ha of 2018-19 by 3% and from normal area high by 2%. On the basis of NDVI crop health condition of Amritsar district depicts normal condition with respect to the year 2018-19 in rabi season 2020-21 and same scenario can be seen in acreage estimation.
- Average crop yield in Amritsar district for paddy is approx. 84 quintals per hectare. The crop is calculated when the farmers gives their inputs during the crop registrations in FASAL SALAH App i.e. date of sowing, soil, variety and our crop modeler met-GIS runs in the backend and monitor the crop at every stages throughout the crop cycle and predicts the crop yield before harvesting.
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